Acquiring and transferring knowledge has always been at the heart of academic life. Yet in a new age in which knowledge is far more easily accessible, learning is no longer restricted to educational institutions.

However, knowledge on its own is not enough to make dreams and aspirations come true. Knowledge in itself is often not the most valuable tool when solving problems or making projects happen. We need to broaden our scope and to start to think in terms of competences – combinations of knowledge, skills and behaviours. When we are assessing, planning, executing and learning in relation to a specific project we need a new taxonomy to describe this new and complex situation. New teaching strategies and practical applications that widen our concept of learning objectives will prepare students for a life of increasing demands and smarter opportunities.mastery_in_the_making


Subject competence

This includes all the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are assumed to be necessary to mastering a given situation.


Social competence

This includes the ability to interact and relate constructively with other people.


Action competence

This includes the ability to show initiative, set goals, prioritize, make decisions and get things done.


Change competence

This includes the ability to think in new terms, to learn and unlearn, and manage ambiguity, complexity and turbulence.




Øyvind Borgen and Christer Windeløv-Lidzélius